SOCIAL AND POLITICAL LIFE 185 Triad of Face, Fate and Favour. The male Triad more or less always worked together. A good magistrate had to fight his way out and directly reach the people over the shoulders of the other two. There were many such magistrates. But they had a hard time, and these people had always to attend to the administration personally themselves without the usual paraphernalia of the whole yamendom. Such a one, for instance, was Yuan Mei, and there were many others. They were good, but gratuitously good, to the people. In modern times a fourth potentate has come into being in the countryside, and instead of a Triad we have in some parts of the country four monsters working hand in hand together: the magistrate, the gentry, the local rich and the bandit. Sometimes the local rich get out, and there remain only three. No wonder the fat of the land is running thin. No wonder that Communism grows. Communism, without Russian doctrine, could not find a more ideal growing ground. The movement of Communism, with its ruthless stand against the gentry and the local rich, and constantly growing and feeding upon the dislocated population, now homeless, fatless, and marrowless and being called "bandits," must be looked upon as an economic rebellion of the people, quite apart from the accident of Russian theories. And all this because Confucius, in out- lining his social scheme of five human relationships, forgot to define the relationship between man and the stranger. Communism has so changed the scheme of social life that a peasant may go directly to the magistrate and, resting his bam- boo pole on the yamen wall, talk to the magistrate as man to man. This has become so deep-rooted that in territories recovered from the communistic area, the officials can no longer keep to their yamen style, but must speak to the peasant, as the communist officials used to speak to him. Certain things are still wrong, grievously wrong. The Kuomintang had on its literary programme the lightening of the tenants' contri- bution of crops to the landlords, the establishment of rural banks, and the forbidding of usury, etc., etc. And some day it is going to be forced to do all this. The Shanghai pawnshops still proclaim their generosity with the words in big characters outside their doors: "MONTHLY INTEREST EIGHTEEN PER CENT!"